Tuesday, 24 January 2012

EARTH STRUCTURE (lithosphere)

The word lithosphere derived from the Greek meaning Lithos rock, and sphera means lithosphere layer is a layer of earth's outer crust and consists of rocks with an average thickness of 1200 km. The definition of hard rock is not the only objects that form stones in their daily lives, but also in the form of land clay, volcanic ash, sand, gravel and so forth. Thick skin of uneven earth, the earth's crust in the continent or mainland more than thick under the oceans. According to the composition (type of material), the Earth is composed of layers  namely:
a. Lithosphere
the outermost layer which lies above a layer with a thickness of 1200km between the average specific gravity of 2.8 gram/cm3. The main chemical elements forming the lithosphere are: Oxygen (O) (46.6%), Silicon (Si) (27.7%), Aluminum (Al) (8.1%), Iron (Fe) (5.0 %), Calcium (Ca) (3.6%), Sodium (Na) (2.8%), Potassium (K) (2.6%), Magnesium (Mg) (2.1%). Lithosphere temperature increases with depth. In the limit of touching digit bottoming crustal temperatures 200-400 ° C

b. Intermediate layer (the mantle)
namely that there is a layer on top of nife 1700 km thick. This layer is called the asthenosphere mautle / mautel), a high temperature molten material and tungsten. 5 gr/cm3 its density. Earth's mantle is a rock that contains magnesium and silicon. Upper mantle temperatures at 1300 0C-1500 0C and coat the inside temperature at 1500 0C-3000 0C

c. Barisfer
the core layer of the earth which is a solid material composed of layers of nife (ferum niccolum = nickel and iron) fingers barisfer ± 3470 km.